Jazz and History

(27)  Sign of Arising Be Bop and Cool Jazz
in Japanese

Charlie Parker

Dizzy Gillespie
In 1940, economic situation makes enable big band to be held. As a result, small band becomes popular instead, and Dixieland Jazz comes back.

Coincidentally, putting emphasis on 2nd beat and 4th beat, Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Christian and some others start playing Off Beat. This is the original of Be Bop.

When one thing ripens, in this case Swing Jazz, new trend arises.

On the other hand, big band makes different trend. Stan Kenton, Boyd Raeburn and some others direct another trend called "Progressive". This new music is characterized by new harmony, and later on, it changes its name to Cool Jazz.

Much later, my favorite Chet Baker starts following the same trend. His movement is called West Coast Jazz that becomes another new trend.
At last, this is the year that Thelonious Monk gets people's attention and that Modern Jazz arise

Chet Baker(1929-1988)
Billy Eckstine wanted to do Bop, he became independent from the Earl Hines band in 1944, and organized his own band. He became the first Bop singer. Sarah Vaughan was called as an exclusive singer of Billy's band at once. Sarah has grown up as a singer of bop. Moreover, Art Brakey of theJazz Messengers was in the Billy's band.

When Billy's band went to St. Louis, he met the Miles Davis. Miles wanted to enter Billy's band and appealed to Gillespie. At this time, Billy feeled that "Miles is terrible".

It is said that the shift from the swing era to the bop age looks like the way where Picasso caused "Cubism" in France at the beginning of the 20th century.


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